Semester 2 B.Sc Chemistry 2020-2023

Semester 2 B.Sc Chemistry 2020-2023


 Unit 1: Atomic Structure (6 Hrs) Introduction based on historical development (Dalton's atomic theory, Thomson’s atom model Rutherford’s atom model) - failure of classical physics – black body radiation - Planck’s quantum hypothesis - photoelectric effect - generalization of quantum theory . Atomic spectra of hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms– Bohr theory of atom – Calculation of Bohr radius, velocity and energy of an electron - explanation of atomic spectra - limitations of Bohr theory - Sommerfeld modification. Louis de Broglie's matter waves – wave-particle duality - electron diffraction - Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Schrödinger wave equation (derivation not expected), wave functions – significance of ψ and ψ 2 – atomic orbitals and concept of quantum numbers - shapes of orbitals (s, p and d) - Pauli’s Exclusion principle - Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity - Aufbau principle – electronic configuration of atoms.

 Unit 2: Chemical Bonding – I (9 Hrs) Introduction – Octet rule and its limitations. Types of bonds: Ionic bond - factors favouring the formation of ionic bonds - lattice energy of ionic compounds - Born- Lande equation with derivation - solvation enthalpy and solubility of ionic compounds – Born-Haber cycle and its applications – properties of ionic compounds - polarisation of ions – Fajan's rule and its applications. Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory and its limitations. Concept of resonance - resonance structures of borate, carbonate and nitrate ions. Hybridization: Definition and characteristics – shape of molecules (BeCl2, C2H2, BF3, C2H4, CH4, NH3, H2O, NH4 + , H3O + , PCl5, SF6 and IF7). VSEPR theory: Postulates - applications - shapes of molecules CCl4, NH3, H2O, ClF3, XeF2, SF6, IF5, XeF4, IF7 and XeF6. Properties of covalent compounds - polarity of bonds – percentage of ionic character – dipole moment and molecular structure.

 Unit 3: Chemical Bonding – II (9 Hrs) Covalent Bond: Molecular Orbital Theory – LCAO - bonding and anti-bonding molecular orbitals – bond order and its significance. MO diagrams of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules: H2, He2, Li2, Be2, B2, C2, N2, O2, F2, CO and NO – comparison of bond length, magnetic behavior and bond energy of O2, O2 + , O2 2+, O2 - and O2 2- . Metallic Bond: free electron theory, valence bond theory and band theory (qualitative treatment only) - explanation of metallic properties based on these theories. Intermolecular forces: Hydrogen bond - intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonds – effect on physical properties. Van der Waals forces, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, ion-induced dipole, dipole-induced dipole and induced dipole-induced dipole interactions 

 Unit 4: Chemistry of s and p Block Elements (3 Hrs) Periodicity in s-and p- block elements with respect to electronic configuration, atomic and ionic size, ionization energy and electro negativity. Inert pair effect. 

Unit 5: Chemistry of d and f Block Elements (9 Hrs) Transition Metals: General characteristics: Metallic character, oxidation states, size, density, melting points, boiling points, ionization energy, colour, magnetic properties, reducing properties, catalytic properties, non-stoichiometric compounds, complex formation and alloy formation. Difference between first row and other two rows. Preparation, properties, structure and uses of KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7. Lanthanides: Electronic configuration and general characteristics – Occurrence of lanthanides Isolation of lanthanides from monazite sand - Separation by ion exchange method. Lanthanide contraction: Causes and consequences. Industrial importance of lanthanides.